Levofloxacin (Levaquin) is an
antibacterial agent which comes in a light yellowish-white to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder with a
molecular weight of 370.38. Levaquin is one of the medications from a group of antibiotics called
fluoroquinolones that fights with bacteria in the body.
Indications: Levofloxacin is indicated in the treatment of certain
bacterial infections such as kidney infection (pyelonephritis), bladder infection
(cystitis) or prostate infection (prostatitis). It is also used to treat people who have
been exposed to anthrax. This drug also treats pneumonia and bronchitis resulted from bacterial infection. It is
also effective in treating infectious diarrhea and obstetric infections such as mastitis, an infection of the
Dosage: the dosage of Levofloxacin differs depending on the
type of infection. Usually, the basic dosage is 250-750 mg that is to be taken once for 5-60 days on daily
basis. In order to prevent the absorption of the drug in to the body, oral formulations of antacid or minerals
are to be taken at least 2 hours before the consumption of the drug. The tablets of Levofloxacin are usually
available in mass of 250, 500 and 750 mg. Its injections are in volume of 5mg/ml or 25 mg/ml. The drug should be
stored within the temperature of 15 to 30 degree Celsius.
Before the medication is
recommended, patients should undergo many tests before the treatment to isolate and identify the organisms
causing the infection and the susceptibility to this drug.
Contraindications: Levofloxacin maybe contraindicated in certain conditions.
Levaquin may not be prescribed to patients:
Suffering from kidney or liver
Has a history of head injury or
Suffering from muscle weakness or
trouble in breathing
Suffering from low levels of
potassium in blood
Having any joint problems and
Patients allergic to levofloxacin or
other fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gemifloxacin (Factive), moxifloxacin (Avelox),
ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others
Mechanism of Action (MOA): Levofloxacin is an antibiotic drug that actively works
against gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. It inhibits DNA gyrase (a necessitated enzyme for DNA
replication), thus stalling cell division. Some of the chemical components of this drug are toxic against
mammalian cell culture.
Drug Interactions: Drugs containing minerals, iron, calcium, zinc and
magnesium prevent the absorption of the Levaquin from the intestine in the blood. Hence, drugs containing these
components are to be taken 2 hours before or after the consumption of Levofloxacin. Sucralfate (Carafate) and
Didanosine (Videx, Videx EC) are the other drugs that can interact with Levofloxacin.
Risk of CNS stimulation may
also occur while taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with levofloxacin. Blood sugar levels may change
(increase or decrease) in patients who are treated with fluoroquinolones. It may also increase theophylline
(Theodur) in the blood.
Effects: While some of the common side effects of Levofloxacin are
headache, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness and constipation, following are some of the severe adverse reactions of
the medication which require immediate medical care:
– Some of the symptomatic warnings of liver
damage are nausea, stomach pain, weakness, fever, or abdominal pain.
Problems in central
nervous system – Consult doctor on
experiencing seizures, severe depression symptoms, confusions, hallucinations, insomnia (sleeplessness) or anxiety.
reactions – Stop intake of
Levofloxacin on development of skin rash, hives, swelling of face, tightness in throat tightness or rapid